The Origin of Life
ADNAN OKTAR Darwin imagined that the appendix had no function in the body. He therefore claimed that it was an evolutionary remnant since the organ had not been used in the process of evolution. Yet contemporary scientists have now refuted this claim of Darwin’s.
ADNAN OKTAR . Beaked Whales presented as a proof to evolution by the evolutionists through illogical and unscientific arguments, the beaked whales, in all their attributes, actually lay bare the truth of creation
ADNAN OKTAR There is no one who would not adore a bird that glides away through the sky with its wings open. Today, almost everyone agrees that birds can fly due to their certain extraordinary biological traits. However, how birds attained these traits that allow them to fly has become a source of speculation for some people.
Based on birds’ feather structure, the lightness of their bones and unidirectional respiratory system, some people who can reason with their mind and conscience think that it is impossible to be able to fly without all these traits and this can only be a work of a superior mind: Yet some look at the same creature and claim it evolved by itself in the nature and “even though they know the truth in their conscience”, they are in denial of the superior mind, namely God, Who brought this bird into being. Furthermore, they believe in extremely unreasonable explanations such as birds evolved in time from dinosaur-like reptiles and started to fly while chasing flies or jumping from tree to tree.
This unfounded story is presented as a scientific view all around the world, and through the imposition of the Darwinist dictatorship, hundreds of millions of people are led to believe in it.
In fact, this situation is not new, but has been going on ever since the period of the Egyptian, Babylonian and Sumerian civilizations. In historical research, expressions have been found in Sumerian inscriptions that deny creation and claim that living beings came into existence as a result of a gradual and random process. Egyptians, by the nature of their false religion, believed that “snakes, frogs, worms and mice were formed from the mud of the Nile that was inundated with floods.”
As it can be understood from this, communities and ideas that attack those who believe in God have always existed ever since the era of Nimrod or Pharaoh. However, these people have never been more organized than they are today and they hold a tremendous power called the media. They try to impose upon students at schools the idea that living beings were not created by God, but supposedly came into existence through coincidences. As a result of the Darwinist dictatorship’s compulsion, hundreds of thousands of teachers and professors and thousands of schools and universities teach the theory of evolution as if it is the only scientific fact. Through books and documentaries, the youth are led to believe in superstitions such as dinosaurs turned into birds by chasing flies and bears that hunted fish in rivers turned into whales.
No one is able to stand against this assertive system and governments fail to stop this education system. Even countries that are known as Islamic nation-states have given into the evolutionary belief.
Today, the faith of the people is under attack because of this Darwinist propaganda carried out in schools, press and media. Even though many Muslims suffer from this system that denies God, they cannot speak up and stand out against this issue. This superstitious Darwinist dictatorship, by reason of being a dajjal system, is a massive threat to the world. The wars, massacres, colonial mindset, moral corruption and all of the man-made disasters are caused by Darwinism, the deviant thought system that explicitly denies God. (Surely, we hold God above such thoughts.) Therefore, what Muslims must do is to wage a scientific struggle against this false system and spread the evidences that disprove the theory of evolution wherever possible.
For the first time in history, the denial of God is rampant and widespread. Of course, Almighty God will render this vile audacity futile and establish the reign of the Islamic moral values. In the Qur’an, God states this promise as follows:
God has promised those of you who have faith and do right actions that He will make them successors in the land as He made those before them successors, and will firmly establish for them their religion with which He is pleased and give them, in place of their fear, security...(Surat an-Nur, 55)
Without doubt, no dajjal power will remain standing except the ones God wishes.
In the 55th verse of Surat an-Nur, God reveals in detail of a period when Islamic moral values will reign over the world and people will live their lives according to the beauties of Islamic moral values. This promise will come true in the era of the system of the Mahdi, in other words, in this century. When this promise is fulfilled, Hazrat Mahdi (as) will become the spiritual leader, guide of the Muslims.
Our Prophet (saas) also stated that this victory of the believers will become a reality through Hazrat Mahdi (as) and talked in detail about the peace, love, prosperity and illumination of the period when Islamic moral values reign over the world.
The faith of Muslims will be established upon solid foundations and find its place into Muslims’ hearts only after the denial has become as strong as it can get and Muslims have started to wish for a Savior that would bring salvation to them. Muslims have always waited for a spiritual leader, a Savior, in every time of hardship. The commandment of the Qur’an necessitates this.
What reason could you have for not fighting in the Way of God – for those men, women and children who are oppressed and say, ‘Our Lord, take us out of this city whose inhabitants are wrongdoers! Give us a protector from You! Give us a helper from You!’? (Surat an-Nisa, 75)
As God states in the verse, Muslims should pray to God for the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), who will deliver them from the seemingly powerful deniers to salvation and safety, as soon as possible. While doing that, they also should wage the most effective scientific struggle against the dajjal system of Darwinism that besets the entire world and should carry out a scholarly and effective work against the theory of evolution, the root of all disasters. Without doubt, all power belongs to God and victory will always belong to those who devote themselves to God.
As for those who make God their friend, and His Messenger and those who have faith: it is the party of God who are victorious! (Surat al-Ma’ida, 56)
ADNAN OKTAR Science is an important road to truth. But, on the condition that the methods used are impartial and scientific facts are not distorted.
Science is an important road to truth. But, on the condition that the methods used are impartial and scientific facts are not distorted. However, when comparison is made between various animal and human species in many Darwinist studies and researches, in fact, rough methods are applied rather than scientific facts. For example, a so-called ancestral relationship between species is constructed within the framework of a method called "Topographic anatomy" used by Darwinists based on observational data such as skull size, bone length and thickness, curve-flat formation of bones, tooth size and placement. In sorting the skulls of monkeys, which they allege to be the so-called common ancestor of man according to their sizes, Darwinists attempt:
- Forming a perception that there is common descent and brain size grew in time,
- Thus, intelligence and social living progressed further gradually,
- And as a result of these, the present day is attained.
Sometimes, a single tooth or a few bone fragments were turned into a whole body with modeling irrelevant to reality. What is more, that living being was even illustrated in an imaginary social life in order to increase its persuasiveness. At times, species completely different from one another that lived in the same period were arrayed from small to large just to present these to be on a so-called line of common descent. In fact, just out of ideological reasons, certain forgeries were invented to spread false news as if a "missing-link is found." Based on such fabrications, counterfeit scientific articles were published, and fake fossils were exhibited in museums for years.
Some media organs have also supported all this deception, and even had no shame in presenting some old fraudulent claims to be new discoveries as part of their classical Darwinist tactic. The last example of this is a fossil discovery made in 2013 in South Africa, but announced to the world only in 2015. Recently, this matter was brought to the agenda in certain websites such as the CNN, Scientific American, and The Daily Mail on the pretense of being a new discovery.
We have occasionally responded to similar claims intended to indoctrinate people with the Darwinist mindset that there were presumably half-man half-ape living beings, which had lived before. Yet, in this article, what this fossil actually is and the non-scientific allegations related to it will be briefly explained.
"HUMAN ANCESTOR FOUND WITH A SMALL BRAIN SIZE" DECEPTION
More than 1,500 bone-remains claimed to belong to 15 different individuals were discovered in a cave in South Africa in 2013. Along with these bones named "Homo Naledi", Darwinist circles came up with their so-called "missing link" scenarios in 2015 and these fossils were introduced as "a newly discovered so-called hominid species".
The findings comprised of not a complete skull, but what they had were worn-out parietal bones placed adjacently without full contact as if hanging in the air. Despite that, it was claimed that this living being had a brain size of 500 grams, with a volume the size of an orange. The allegation was that the Homo Naledi could have lived 2-2.5 million years ago. In addition, it was suggested to be a mosaic form "that could climb trees with curled finger bones, but had hominid wrists and long thigh bones." On top of all these, the pelvis bone found in fractured pieces was assembled to this construct just with the pretense that it could walk upright.
It was also a matter of debate how these fossils found in a barely accessible cave, 1,450 meters below the earth, came there. The story told these could have been consciously thrown or buried by other members of the species, because there were no tools or other living remains with them.
Certainly, 3D images and comparisons made with human beings were not left out in order to instill evolutionary ideas in people’s memory. The soft tissues such as eyes, ears, nose, skin and hair, which do not leave any residue in fossils, were fabricated as fictitious reconstructions. Although the maxillary and nasal bones were missing, the positions of the bones were determined by assumptions.
Whether the pieces of bones brought together belong to the same individual or to different ones, if they lived in the same period or not, and if the body parts of other species ended up mixed with these remains or not, are some of the points waiting to be clarified about Homo Naledi.
As it is seen, Darwinists persist with their unscientific attitude and ideological approach in presenting the fossils as well as their interpretation of the findings.
UNDATED FOSSILS REBUKE MISSING LINK SCENARIOS
While there is much discussion about the fossils found, it is bewildering that their age has not been dated yet since 2013. Scientific American says the following on this issue:
“One other crucial fact missing was naledi's age. Without this, it is difficult to pinpoint where exactly the species fit into the evolutionary scheme of things…” i
American paleontologist Lee Berger, who personally conducted the study in 2013, says in respect thereof, “But where it comes from, where it descends from, and what it gives rise to -- if anything -- we don't know." ii
This means if the fossils are older or younger than they are predicted, the missing link scenario written by Darwinists up until today will become totally meaningless.
All these expound that stories told about Homo Naledi have no scientific foundation, but solely rest upon Darwinist prejudice.
MAKE-BELIEVE PARALLELS BETWEEN CHIMPANZEES AND HUMANS
Lee Berger, the lead researcher on Homo Naledi, admits that the fossil findings do not correspond to any known human race. For that reason, Darwinist scientists have resorted to inventing a "new species" for the remnants of a fancy. For instance, while claiming that the fossil is a so-called intermediary hominid species filling the gap between Australopithecus and human beings, Berger’s assertions were partial and prejudiced in the face of research made on the bone discovery.
This assembled skeleton bears the traits of chimpanzees with all features. The shoulder joints and curved finger bones are the same with apes hanging from branches of trees. The large innominate bones and the downwardly expanding chest cage are particular to the Australopithecus, an extinct ape species. Despite claims of similarity with human feet, the foot bones of this living being are unlike humans having a lower nominal curve with a different orientation.
Although Australopithecus Afarensis is alleged to be the first ancestor in the so-called evolutionary tree of Darwinists, the thumbs of this being were longer than today’s chimpanzees or apes. This feature is utterly contrary to claims of evolution. In fact, Homo Naledi's thumb is even longer than that of Australopithecus Afarensis. This finding once again disproves the imaginary progress in the supposed evolutionary tree. Having no parallels with human thumb, Homo Naledi remains are also quite different from the other fake “hominid” species in the imaginary evolution family tree.
In addition, Homo Naledi's hand bears no similarity with the human hand in any way, its curved finger bones and other apelike features are further evidence that it is an ape moving around and swinging through tree branches. Even if Darwinists attempt at make-believe methods to draw parallels between chimpanzees and humans, it is impossible for this hand structure to grasp and use any tool as a human being does. What is more, no tools or artifacts belonging to human culture were found in this cave where the bones were found.
Moreover, the teeth discovered Dinaledi cave does not bear a resemblance like human teeth at all. Those approximate to a smaller ape species when compared with the Australopithecus series, thus have no parallels or similarities to human beings.
BRAIN SIZE IS NOT DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO INTELLIGENCE
Findings about the history of man are based on fossil discoveries. However, since findings are often interpreted according to presuppositions of evolutionary theory, attaining scientific results is generally not probable. Even if a finding is contrary to evolutionary ideas, certain scientists approach such discoveries with prejudiced questions like, "How did evolution achieve this?" in order to keep the evolution theory alive. Or, they come up with irrational claims such as the "punctuated evolution".
Henry Gee, an author writing in the Nature magazine, summarizes this bias of Darwinists with striking remarks:
“To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientific hypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity as a bedtime story—-amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific.” iii
For clarification, let us explain this with an example:
Today we see people with different physical characteristics due to the genetic diversity God has granted us as a splendid variety. For instance, traits like being short or tall, eye and skin color, and many others are at a great variety although we are basically the same human being. Such differences were prevalent in the past as well. Evolutionists come up with numerous inconsistencies by distorting this fact with their false claims of human evolution. They array human skulls of different volumes in contradiction and make up an imaginary diagram. Hence, the skull volume of Neanderthals alleged to be the so-called "primitive ancestor of man" is in fact larger than average humans today, and thus contradicts with evolutionary claims.
With today's technology, the physical structure and buildup of the brain may be examined in detail even at microscopic level. The human brain has an average weight of 1,200-1,400 grams in different individuals. Functional differences have not been detected even though male and female brains weigh differently. Moreover, neural connections in the brains of intelligent people also display no disparity under the microscope. Albert Einstein, regarded to be one of the most intelligent people known, had a normal brain volume.
Thus, all these inconsistencies show that neither a larger brain size is a sign of excessive development, nor a smaller skull volume is a deficiency. All of these are a part of the variety already existing in the human gene pool. Physical measurements based on bone sizes, and making predictions about a living being based on such calculations is distancing from science and will lead to very wrong conclusions.
LIVING BEINGS NOT CHANGING FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS IS EVIDENCE FOR CREATION
Research made on the brains of living beings makes it clear that brain size and tissue are not proportionate to the intelligence or social development of individuals. In a similar way, it is nonsensical to conjecture guesswork on animals that lived in the past based only on anatomical measurements. While the dating of fossil findings cannot be made precisely, drawing conclusions based on these is only an ideological venture to impose the evolution deceit on societies.
When we examine fossil findings, the striking outcome is always the fact of Creation. Every living being appears suddenly in the fossil record and bears all the features necessary for living right from its origin. This is a requisite for the organism to sustain its life. The fossil records show that living species have undergone no changes in the course of their lives, while some have gone extinct and others have persisted until today.
i - http://edition.cnn.com/2016/05/03/health/homo-naledi-human-species-lee-berger/
ii – Ibid.
iii- Henry Gee, In Search of Deep Time, New York, The Free Press, 1999, p. 116-117
Adnan Oktar's piece in News Rescue:
ADNAN OKTAR An article published in Nature journal in June 8th, 2017 featured the human fossil remains recently discovered in Morocco, which are estimated to be 315,000 years old. Thus, the discovery has given rise to the discussion that the origin of Homo Sapience species might date back to 100,000 years earlier than thought before. BBC in particular, the local news outlets such as Sözcü newspaper, ODA TV, even Cyprus Post tried to present the claims in the article as supporting evidence for the evolutionary scenario.
First of all it should be noted that the origin of mankind dating back way earlier than previously thought has nothing to do with evolution. New age determination methods were utilized in the study, which led to the discovery of the fossil remains belonging to members of human species dating back to 315,000 years before. Indeed, the oldest known fossils belonged to a human who said to live in East Africa 200,000 years ago. Once the recently acquired information is verified, it will push back mankind’s origins by 100,000 years and replace East Africa with North Africa as the discovery location of the oldest known human remains.
The data concerning the fossils drew different interpretations and BBC being in particular, many local and foreign news outlets put forth numerous arguments in order to save face for the evolution theory. Yet all the efforts are in vain. The discovery of human fossils dating way back and the fact that mankind preserved its physical qualities for a longer period than thought offers proof not to evolution but to creation. Well aware of this fact, Darwinists, as always, have kept fossils away from the public. No sooner had the fossils in question been featured in the article then the fact that these fossils were revealed to having been kept away from the public for 55 years.
Fossils that were kept secret for years
In 1960s, during an excavation in Jebel Irhoud region for extracting barite element, minors unearthed an almost complete human fossil. In 1967 and 1969, further excavations in the same region conducted by Jacques Tixier and Roger de Bayle des Hermens unearthed tools such as knives, arrowheads, ice scraping tools and drills. Along with these, the excavations also unearthed skulls as well as the fossils of jawbone, thigh bone and femur belonging to a child. However as, according to the Darwinists, such early human presence in history does not conform to the so-called evolutionary scenario, all the discovered bones and tools were presented to be 40,000 years old and claimed to belong to Neanderthals, an assertion that stands refuted today.
The excavations carried out in the same region since 2004 were announced to have found 20 new human bone fossils, among which were skull, tooth and jawbone fossils that belong to three adults, a teenager and a child of about seven years.
It was also announced that among the discoveries, there were numerous tools, deer bones carrying marks suggesting these people were engaged in butchery, and various burn marks indicating the existence of cooking and baking in that era.
As we have just stated, falsely presenting the age determination of these fossils to be 40,000, evolutionists introduced these fossils as a species related to Neanderthals. However, new age determination studies conducted on the jawbones, which had been discovered in 1969 and claimed to be 40 years old, revealed the origin of these bones to be human and their age to be between 280,000 to 350,000 years.
Prof. Hublin tried to gloss over the hoax through his following words; “The fossils looked far too “primitive” to be anything understandable, so people came up with some weird ideas.” But this example is highly crucial in that it laid bare to what extent evolutionist can go to arbitrarily distort scientific evidence and how erroneous their claims can be.
Chris Stinger, a paleoanthropologist at the British Museum of Natural History, also confessed to ‘first seeing these fossils in 1970s and being baffled when he realized that they did not belong to Neanderthals.’ To save face, Stinger claimed, “They seemed too young and primitive-looking to be human,” yet this effort, too, is in vain.
The fossils, which were discovered by Prof. Hublin in 2004 only to come to the fore after 13 years, put Darwinists in a great dilemma. Although many evolutionists who were troubled by the rebuttal of evolution scenario tried to deny these fossils and come up with new scenarios, all the obtained scientific data clearly shows that mankind did not evolve.
The only finding that carries any evidential value for evolution is the revelation of “transitional forms”. To date, all the layers of the stratum have been reached and more than 700 million fossils have been acquired. Yet all of these fossils belong to species that are intact and complete. A species discovered among the ancient layers emerged suddenly, remained unchanged throughout eons, and either has survived until today or perished to become extinct, but transitional forms have yet to be encountered among the myriad fossils.
Had life forms evolved through gradual changes as evolutionists claim, there should have been countless transitional fossils lying within the earth’s strata, and better yet, transitional forms should have been encountered even more frequently. The absence of transitional forms in the fossil record completely shatters the notion of evolution. The oldest human fossils dating back 350,000 years discovered in the excavation attest to not evolution but creation.
ADNAN OKTAR . The Cambrian Period is the name given to the geological age when all the multi-celled groups living today suddenly emerged. This was so sudden and so wide-ranging that scientists refer to it as the “Cambrian explosion.”
ADNAN OKTAR . Excavations performed in Cambrian rock beds in China produced results that completely overturned evolutionist scenarios regarding vertebrates.
ADNAN OKTAR . The Cambrian Period is one of the oldest in natural history and took place 543-490 million years ago. Prior to that, life consisted of single-celled organisms and a few multi-celled organisms, but during it the whole extraordinary variety of life emerged suddenly, in fully formed and perfect states.
ADNAN OKTAR The basic structural unit of creatures, the cell, is incredibly complex enough to leave people amazed. Just like the existence of a single cell, the harmony and cooperation in the cell is very impressive. As the structure of the cell and systems in it are further investigated and new details are found, this perfect order is seen more clearly.
If you were asked to guess the number of all trees in the world, what would your answer be? 10 million? 250 million? 250 billion? No, none of them is the answer. According to the latest researches, there are a total of 3.1 trillion trees in our world. This is quite a big number… In fact, you have to add 11 zeros next to the number of 3.1 to get this number.
ADNAN OKTAR The book “Sapiens – A Brief History of Humankind”, which was released in 2012 and had its first Turkish edition published in 2015, came out with the claim that “it describes a brief history of humanity”.
Similar to many scientific and philosophical publications with an atheistic background, this book begins to describe the history of humanity through the so-called evolutionary process. The title “Sapiens” is deliberately chosen to highlight the claims of evolution, rather than emphasizing historical, political and social aspects of humans. It is obvious that this book, written by Harari, a professor of history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is not a history book. In the book, the description of the so-called evolutionary development of men, and subsequently, the propagation of an atheist ideology that depicts social Darwinism is prevalent.
The book claims to provide the history of mankind from an academic point of view, but a Darwinist mentality pervades the book at every turn. Moreover, Darwinism is presented to the reader as a presupposition without any scientific evidence. The so-called development of the history of mankind, built upon this presupposition, is portrayed in a fiction-like narrative. For this reason, the book cannot be regarded as a history book, nor does it posses any scientific value in respect of biology, because it is based on the so-called evolutionary rationale which has no scientific evidence backing it up. The book, written under the complete influence of the author’s atheistic mentality, is no more than a book of philosophy.
The only positive aspect of the book is that it refers to the fact that following Darwinian logic in society would lead the world into a turmoil.
Even though the fact that the corrupt social structure caused by wild capitalism, fascism and communism – the consequences of the Darwinist mentality – would bring unhappiness is explained in the book, no solution is offered for this problem.
Since the book is based on the evolutionist philosophy rather than historical facts, it is extremely important to respond to the so-called evolutionary interpretations it contains. Clearly putting forth the fact that the mankind came into existence through Creation by God, not through evolution, will destroy the entire philosophy of the book. This way, people will also be reminded once again that the only way to get rid of the unhappy and distorted societal order that took the world by storm, is to make the belief in God prevalent in the world.
Answers to all the claims the book contains are included in detail in Harun Yahya’s works and websites. Since it is not possible to answer all the claims here, only the main ones have been answered.
The claim of “a common ancestor that lived six million years ago”
In evolutionist reasoning, the idea that “man is not different from other animals” is suggested and the tale depicting that “man has a common ancestor with animals” is imposed. Likewise, Harari has presented this claim in a tale-like narrative on the first pages of his book:
“Like it or not, we are members of a large and particularly noisy family called the great apes... Just six million years ago, a single female ape had two daughters. One became the ancestor of all chimpanzees, the other is our own grandmother.” (Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens- A Brief History of Humankind, McClelland and Stewart, 2014, p.11)
This claim, which is put forward with a fiction-like narrative in a manner far removed from being scientific, is written with an evolutionist presupposition without any proof. First of all, not even a single intermediate fossil has been found to this day that proves the Darwinists’ claim. It is impossible to find one, and more than 700 million fossils obtained so far belong to living creatures that have never changed, that is, never gone through any evolutionary process. The source of these superstitious beliefs of evolutionists, who have no scientific evidence proving the existence of a “common ancestor”, is the similar physical features found in different species known as “homology”. According to evolutionists, the reason why apes have hands like ours is that they are our so-called “evolutionary relatives”.
Evolutionists try to present living creatures that they observe as similar as the relatives of one another, or as relatives coming from a common ancestor. This claim, which is not supported by scientific evidence, can only be considered as a superstition. Having homologous organs does not equate to having a common ancestor. Structural similarities between different species are called homology in biology and for the evolutionist claim about homology to be taken seriously, these similar organs should have been coded by similar DNA codes, however similar organs mostly have very different genetic codes. Similar genetic codes in the DNA of different living beings correspond to very different organs. In addition to that, intermediary forms must be found in the fossil records in order for the common ancestor claim to be valid. However, the living organisms encountered in the fossil records are species that have come to exist with perfect organs and survived for generations unchanged. This is the greatest proof for the fact that no evolutionary process has taken place and that life has been created.
The so-called mechanism of evolution must progress from commonality to diversity (divergent). However, even in evolutionary tree scenarios that the evolutionists themselves have prepared, it has been observed that some species showed similar characteristics with species they have no relation to. This is utterly in conflict with the logic that stipulates evolution must be divergent. Having all their, theories reach an impasse, evolutionists at this point came up with an another imaginary hypothesis, “convergent evolution” (from diversity to commonality). This is the point where the logic of evolution collapses. Richard Dawkins argues that the eyes have evolved 40 times, the absurdity of which is obvious for everyone. An organ cannot evolve 40 times based on coincidence, and reach the same point. This is only possible if it was created by a conscious superior mind.
One of the major problems for evolutionists who try to prove their theories by basing them on similarities in living organisms is the manifestation of the same physical characteristics in completely different gene structures. For example, many creatures who can camouflage themselves adapt perfectly to the environment they inhabit. The genetic sequencing of an insect species we see in the pictures is different from the genetic sequencing of the plant on which it resides. The fact that such identical physical characteristics can emerge from different genetic structures is, indeed, awe-inspiring. It is not possible for such an artistic marvel to exist without also the existence of a superior Creator Who has full control over gene structures of both the plant and the bug. These creatures that camouflage also refute the homology-based common ancestor hypothesis of evolutionists.
Constructing a homology-based evolutionary hypothesis was only acceptable in Lamarck’s or Darwin’s times, where the technology was inadequate and the existence of genetic information was unknown. Insisting on a claim like this today, where the advanced science allowed us to examine the structures of DNA, RNA, and protein in detail and understand that the development of living organisms progress under very delicate balances, can only be interpreted as the stubborn continuation of the evolutionist beliefs of the past.
The claim that “100,000 years ago 6 different human species lived”
One of the mechanisms that classical Darwinist thinkers put forth as triggering the so-called evolution is natural selection. Natural selection requires diversity in society. Evolutionists are always striving to find variety and genetic diversity as natural selection’s claim of “the survival of the fittest” fails in an environment where there is no diversity in the social structure. The environment for which these efforts are carried out finds basis in the fossil findings of the past, which evolutionists consider to be open to speculation and difficult to refute. The emergence of humankind is also one of the subjects that is often speculated on. Since the inception of the idea of evolution, claims about the existence of so-called humanoid intermediate forms or new human species have been put forward based on speculations, even frauds -which do not reflect the truth- on the fossil records of human and ape species. At the beginning of his book Harari claims that 100,000 years ago, six different human species have lived at he same time and that Homo sapiens dominated the others, thus survived as the only hominid species on earth. Humans that are claimed to be different species of humans are in fact different races of humans, namely, H. Neanderthalensis, H. Erectus, H. Soloensis, H. Floresiensis, H. Denisovan and H. Sapiens. Just as how today we have different races of humans such as Eskimos, Chinese, and Turks, there have been different human races during that period too. The characteristics of human races of that time are:
A bulky and muscular human race that lived between the years 200,000 and 30,000 BC in Europe and Asia. Even though they were initially introduced as an “intermediate species that cannot walk upright” when their fossils were first found, it is later proven that this claim is false. When the claims that suggest they were an intermediate species or an ancestor to humans fizzled, evolutionists came up with another claim which suggests that they were a species that lived at the same time as Sapiens, but was then eliminated by them, as Harari himself claims. Knowing that anatomical differences are not enough to prove that Neanderthals constitute another species, evolutionist circles have also added genetic studies to their so-called scientific evidence. Supposedly, modern humans carried 1-4% Neanderthal DNA, meaning that they weren’t actually eliminated, they were assimilated. However, this claim is completely illogical:
It is impossible to find intact DNA from 100,000 years ago, separate it from other organisms and microorganisms, and to determine its correct genetic sequence. Claiming that Neanderthals share only 1-4% of their genes with humans while also claiming apes and humans have 95-98% similarity in genetic structure is another eclipse of reason. Both Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals are different races of the same species; efforts to create different species in laboratories and pseudo-scientific journals are futile attempts to prove evolutionist claims.
(For further reading: He Claim That “Neanderthals Are The Ape-Like Ancestors Of Man” Is Fraudulent)
Fossil remains found in Kenya, made up of 12 skulls with missing faces. Initially, evolutionists couldn’t decide what the Soloensis skulls are but eventually the skulls are identified as tiger (!), Neanderthal man and finally “modern man” skulls. The names given to the solo skulls are significant in reference to the state the evolutionists are in. These skulls are named: Homo (Javanthropus) soloensis. Homo soloensis, Homo primigenius asiaticus, Homo neanderthalensis soloensis, Homo sapiens soloensis, Homo erectus erectus, Homo erectus, and finally Homo sapiens.
This is a clear indication of the unreliability of anthropology, which examines the scenario of the imaginary evolution of humans.
Floresiensis, one of the 18,000-year-old fossil remains belonging to some eight to twelve humans found in Flores, Indonesia, was about one meter tall and had a 380cc brain volume; it displayed different characteristics from “normal” Homo sapiens in terms of jaw and wrist anatomy. Evolutionists distorted and interpreted these characteristics as ape-like features and identified the remains as a separate species from Homo sapiens in the so-called evolution of man. In later studies, however, it has been determined that this individual has a disease called “Cretinism” caused by congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone which severely stunts physical and mental growth. So H. Floresiensis is not a separate species, but a human with a disease. (Homo Floresiensis And The Facts Emerging About The Evolution Myth)
These are the last fossils that are revealed. In fact, we can’t exactly say there is a fossil. Findings consist of only a 0.5cm piece of phalanx (finger) bone and two teeth. Evolutionists have tried to rewrite human history and gene transfer based on these tiny fossil pieces. Like Neanderthal, Denisovan was also tried to be supported with so-called genetic studies. However, there was no evidence supporting the existence of a different human species, in this scenario either. (A Made-up ‘Hominid’ Tale from Science Mag: Denisovans)
As is seen, Harari’s “six different species of man” claim is incompatible with scientific facts. Some of those mentioned fossils are fabricated and derived fossils and some belong to humans with certain diseases and others to individuals with different physical characteristics. Just as how different human races differ physically from each other today, they also displayed physical differences 100,000 years ago. This proves that they are individuals with different phenotypes. Since their creation, humans have always existed as one species.
Big brain, high intelligence misconception
One of the main points that evolutionists base their efforts to identify different species as ancestors of one another on is brain volume. Allegedly, as the brain volume increased in time, intelligence increased as well and reached its highest point with the modern man.
The factor that enables evolutionists to freely compose unreal scenarios is the lack of evidence, especially fossil evidence, in this area. Brain consists of soft tissues. Soft tissues are more difficult to fossilize except under certain special conditions. That is why, there is no fossil record for the structure of the human brain. Harari has made this baseless claim one of his anchor points. The story-like narrative in Harari’s book says the following:
“ The earliest men and women, 2.5 million years ago, had brains of about 600 cubic centimeters. Modern Sapiens sport a brain averaging 1,200–1,400 cubic centimeters. Neanderthal brains were even bigger.” (Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens : a brief history of humankind, McClelland & Stewart, 2014, p.14)
However, Homo habilis, which was put forth as the first man, with a 600 cc brain, actually belongs to the ape class called Australopithecus. It has the same long-armed, short-legged and ape-like skeletal structure as the Australopithecus. Its phalanges are suitable for climbing. In short, Homo habilis, which is presented as a separate species by some evolutionists, is actually a species of ape, like all other Australopithecines. (http://harunyahya.com/en/Evrim-Sozlugu/16417/Homo-habilis)
When we consider that Neanderthal brain is 1600 cc, attempting to portray Neanderthals as less advanced than modern humans leads to the collapse of this brain volume-based claim. However, the Neanderthals were just a bulkier human race. The average female brain today has a volume of 1200 cc while the male brain has 1400 cc. Differences in human brain size are caused by phenotypic changes based on growth factors and hormonal differences. Despite the differences between brain volumes of males and females, no difference was found between the two genders in regard to IQ and brain function in the studies conducted. Besides, obviously there are big differences between the IQ levels of people with the same brain volume. In the light of this information, evidently evolutionists’ attempts to classify and sort humans by brain volume alone are unfounded.
With their ability to see and perceive images, to think and comment of them, to speak, to reason and judge, humans are completely different from other living beings. Just as how it is impossible to attribute the order in a bee hive or an ant colony to the little brains of these creatures, it is also impossible to explain these characteristics humans possess with the structure of their brains. The most important difference between human beings and other beings is that humans have consciousness and awareness. Other creatures act instinctively within the limits of inspiration God granted to them.
Darwinists get excited over some human-like behaviors of apes and think that apes are humans’ evolutionary relatives. Nowadays, the studies conducted on ape and human brains haven’t revealed a difference that can explain the aforementioned characteristics when examined in terms of structural anatomy. Therefore, it is not possible to explain human characteristics such as intelligence, consciousness and reasoning, which distinguish humans from other living beings, based on their anatomical and physiological characteristics. The most fundamental characteristic that separates humans from other living beings is that it has a “soul”. That soul belongs to Almighty God, the Creator of all beings.
The claim that, “in the past, humans produced very little” is not true
Another claim from Harari and other evolutionists is that “past generations produced very little.” The main purpose behind this claim is to prove that humanity has undergone a process from simple to complicated in terms of intelligence and culture. Darwinists argue that early humans had so-called primitive brains with thinking skills similar to animals, and that with the development of their brains, they were able to produce more. As evidence, they present the fact that there are no tools other than a few sticks and a knives made from flint found in the imaginary period simply referred to as the “Stone Age”. Such evidence, however, is far from providing reliable information on how life was in the past.
It is known by everyone that even objects from as little as 300 to 500 years ago undergo deterioration due to natural processes. Sometimes even protecting old objects from deterioration under special conditions is not good enough. It is evident that under natural conditions deterioration will accelerate. We know that it is not possible for metal objects to remain intact for more than 1,500 years. Even stones erode in time and lose their properties. The structure of the 3,000 year old pyramids is severely eroded. Therefore, it is very clear that a few pieces of stone objects obtained from well-preserved environments, which evolutionists try to present as proofs of their claims, will not reflect the living conditions of 100,000 or even 10,000 years ago.
Therefore the claim that there had been a stone age’ during which the so-called “primitive people” lived is a fallacy. In no period of history, had there been ‘primitive humans’, and there had been no primitive period in which only stone tools were made. Every period of human history hosts great civilizations. So much so that we are far from accomplishing some of the discoveries of ancient civilizations.
The physical structure of humans has always been the same since the creation of the first human. The earlier humans had the same level of reasoning and consciousness as the people today. There was no societal structure that progressed from primitive to advanced, it only displayed fluctuations like today. In different periods of history, many advanced civilizations were established and disappeared after a while. During these disappearances, the knowledge accumulated until that time has also disappeared, and cultures and scientific developments have had to be experienced again and again. Just as how today societies living in the space age exist simultaneously with societies that have a simple lifestyle, removed from science and technological possibilities, there had been culturally, scientifically and technologically advanced societies in the past.
The lie that “the ability to walk upright has developed over time”
One of the tale-like narrations in Harari’s book is the following:
“Standing up, it’s easier to scan the savannah for game or enemies, and arms that are unnecessary for locomotion are freed for other purposes, like throwing stones or signaling. The more things these hands could do, the more successful their owners were, so evolutionary pressure brought about an increasing concentration of nerves and finely tuned muscles in the palms and fingers.” (Yuval Noah Harari. Sapiens: A Brief History Of Humankind, McClelland & Stewart, 2014, p. 15)
This tale-like narration belongs to the times of Lamarck, the times when the existence of genetic information was unknown. However, as we know very well today, our capabilities are determined by the knowledge inside the genes influencing our physical structure. But the opposite, that is, our actions and behaviors affecting our genes, is simply out of the question. At a time when the existence of genes was unknown, an observer watching people lifting weights, doing sports, may have made such an incorrect deduction by observing that muscle/bone structure is strengthened only when lifting weights. Actually, even in that period, if the fact that the musculo-skeletal structure of children of athletes wouldn’t look like their parents’ if they, themselves, do not exercise had been observed, no such claim would have been made.
Robin Crompton, a British engineer who did research in 1996 on humans’ upright gait, as a result of computer simulations he made, found out that there is no intermediate movement style between apes’ gait and humans’. Crompton’s work showed that a living being could either walk upright on two feet, or move bent forward on four feet. A intermediary walking model between these two is extremely inefficient.
Moreover, the fossil records shows that no living being has ever had a movement style between the gait of an ape and that of a human. Detailed examinations on the fossil records demonstrate that the living beings classified under Australopithecus and Homo Habilis walk bent forward on four legs like an ape while human races like Homo Erectus and Neanderthal walk upright just like we do. In other words, the two-legged upright gait emerged suddenly and for the first time on earth with humans.
The Danger of Social Darwinism
Following the discourse intended to support the theory of evolution, the book also features the philosophy built upon the atheistic mentality extensively. An analysis of the twisted systems removed from religion that our world has been drawn into and may continue to be stuck in, has been made. What is striking here is that the author of the book saw that the dangerous Darwinist messages, either clearly stated or veiled, would have an even more intensifying effect on this erroneous order:
“According to the science of biology, people were not “created” (may God forbid the thought). They have evolved. And they certainly did not evolve to be ‘equal’. The idea of equality is inextricably intertwined with the idea of creation. … if we do not believe in the Christian myths about God, creation and souls, what does it mean that all people are “equal”? .. There are no such things as rights in biology. There are only organs, abilities and characteristics… But “liberty”? There is no such thing in biology. Just like equality, rights and limited liability companies, liberty is something that people invented and that exists only in their imagination.. From a biological viewpoint, it is meaningless to say that humans in democratic societies are free, whereas humans in dictatorships are unfree.” (Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History Of Humankind, McClelland & Stewart, 2014, pp. 97-98)
Even reading these few lines is very important in terms of understanding how brutal the world can be with a Darwinist mindset. In a society shaped by evolutionist thought, without belief of God, it is obvious how extreme and boundless people can get. When the moral values of religion are destroyed, virtues such as solidarity, sacrifice, compassion, protection of the poor and the weak, equality and love which exist in the essence of religion would be replaced with a dangerous and cruel way of life filled with oppression, torture, selfishness, lovelessness, enslavement and murder. Concepts such as rights, justice, equality and freedom will lose their meanings; an environment in which the strong and rich oppress the weak and the poor will emerge and become intolerable in a very short time. Since struggle is essential to the theory as evolutionist thought regards this way of life as a part of so-called “natural selection”; it is claimed that in this way the strong, healthy and intelligent generations would contribute more to the advancement of so-called evolution.
We have many times experienced the examples of this cruel mentality in the 20th Century, when the Darwinist mentality dominated the world. The whole world witnessed the cruelty of dictators such as Hitler, Stalin and Pol Pot, how they slaughtered millions of people, how Hitler killed people whom he regarded as “inferior races” in gas chambers; how hundreds of thousands of people in many Western countries have been forcefully sterilized or left to die just because they were sick, disabled or old. Everybody knows that people were oppressed and exploited all over the world due to ruthless competition; that racism has become the state ideology of some countries and that some races are not even considered human; that there have been conflicts, hot and cold wars between the communists and the capitalists, the right and left; that even the peoples of the same country, brothers, become hostile to each other.
An atheist who has an evolutionist mindset is actually aware that a world based the moral values of religion would offer a much better life. However, saying “let’s live according to the moral values of religion” will not change their ideology all of a sudden, and the desired result will not be achieved. At this point, a good explanation of the invalidity of the so-called theory of evolution will undermine and destroy the mindset Harari described in his book and other atheistic systems. Proving the fact that the claims of the theory of evolution and of a life emerging from evolutionary processes are invalid with scientific evidence, will make everyone realize that the universe could only be created by a conscious power. When a belief in God becomes prevalent in a society, the moral values of religion that constitute the origin of love, quality, freedom, democracy, respect and all kinds of beauty, will pervade the society; the world will thus be like heaven on earth.
So far we have responded to some of the evolutionist claims Harari included in his book Sapiens. There are many other topics in the book that we can refute, but we didn’t think it was necessary to go into so much detail here. You can find our answers to other claims in our website www.harunyahya.com and in Mr. Adnan Oktar’s other books and articles.
ADNAN OKTAR Some populations of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) living in the northeastern coasts of the US have adapted to the severe pollution, which was the result of toxic wastes (aromatic hydrocarbons) mixing with seawater due to recent increases in industrialization, presumably through the process of evolution.
An article published in the Science Magazine on December 8, 2016 was presented as a so-called proof of evolution. This article claims that some populations of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) living in the northeastern coasts of the US have adapted to the severe pollution, which was the result of toxic wastes (aromatic hydrocarbons) mixing with seawater due to recent increases in industrialization, presumably through the process of evolution. Again, it is alleged that this so-called evolutionary process developed rapidly and was repeated independently in different regions and produced the same results. Obviously in light of scientific facts, these claims of an evolutionary process have no grounds.
The killifish were collected from eight locations along the 300 km coastline adjacent to the city of New York. The fish were paired in two populations: sensitive and tolerant to toxins. In these pairings, the distance between the specimens was as short as a few kilometers. In the article, it is suggested that tolerance to aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based (AHR) signaling pathways were rendered ineffective and caused this tolerance. As part of this claim, the Atlantic killifish supposedly lived in a location that was quite convenient to adapt to this fast and lethal change through a so-called process of evolution.
Now let's respond to the inconsistencies and false conclusions in this article.
As we have mentioned above, the fish samples are taken only from a very small range: In fact, the locations where the presumed sensitive and tolerant fish populations are said to be living are very close to each other. It is not possible for two killifish groups that live so close together to be isolated from each other. Fish that live in one area can be found in the other area after a while. Since they are not isolated, the sampled fish are but individuals of the same species that manifest different physical characteristics (phenotypes). This also demonstrates that the study was conducted erroneously right from the start. In fact, no matter where the samples are taken from which part of the world, the results will not change. Each individual killifish carries all the characteristics of the species but different individuals may have different phenotypes. These physical expressions can also lead to lethal outcomes in a variety of difficult situations.
We can explain this with the following example. Every year millions of people catch the flu, which is an infection. A small proportion of these people lose their lives while most get through the disease alive. The reason some people die is due to the weaknesses stemming from their immune system or other factors. However, in general, those who remain alive or die due to the disease all have the same DNA structure. The human genome has the same structure in all human beings. The resulting difference is caused by phenotypes, which is, in turn, caused by the expression of the genes. The offspring of those ones who lived on after the disease may also be infected with the same virus. The situation is similar with the killifish; it doesn't mean that those tolerant to toxins are superior to those that are genetically sensitive.
AHR Signaling Pathways Have Vital Functions
One of the claims in the article is that the AHR signaling pathways supposedly differs between sensitive and tolerant fish. While the AHR function is reduced in tolerant fish, it continues at normal levels in the sensitive ones. There is absolutely no evolutionary mechanism at work here. All killifish have AHR genes; the difference stems from the regulation of these genes. The important point here is that the AHR signaling pathways are also responsible for the continuation of many vital cellular activities. The immune system, cell division and hypoxia alarm are among these functions. While providing resistance against toxicants, these vital functions should also be regulated in equilibrium. Since the obstruction of AHR pathways would result in the failure of other vital functions and eventually death, it needs to be adjusted precisely. A conscious entity is imperative in achieving this.
Claims of Rapid and Repeated Change are Against the So-Called Concept of Evolution
The basic assertion of evolutionists is that new features are being added to living organisms as a result of coincidental mutations, which occur in long periods of time. In this sense, to prove the allegations of evolution, it should be demonstrated that living beings have developed from simple to complex organisms. However, throughout the years, no evidence has been found to prove that life emerged through such small changes over the years. For such development to occur there should have been numerous intermediary forms between the initial state and the final state of living organisms but there is not even one intermediary form among the more than 700 million fossils discovered up until this day. Any member of a species appears on the fossil records as complete organisms, bearing every trait of that species, and maintains its existence along with its characteristics for millions of years. If the natural surroundings were not suitable for the persistence of that species, it would die out and become extinct, otherwise continue to exist up to our day.
Feeling compelled to explain every biological phenomenon with so-called claims of evolution, evolutionists tend to explain any finding that is against their claims with the same prejudice. This allows us to notice once again the ideological grounds of evolutionary ideas, as these are not scientific at all. A person, who sees that life emerged instantaneously, should also accept that there is no such thing as evolution, and living beings have come into existence through Creation. However, in face of this truth, evolutionists try to account for the existence of a living being with terms like "evolutionary leap, spontaneous generation." These definitions are completely contradictory to the basic rationale of evolution, as we mentioned at the beginning. These are hollow terms and they never explain through which mechanism the life emerged because they can't. Evolutionary theory has no mechanism it can resort to, since life is created.
Another fictitious term is "repeated evolution". Again, according to the allegations of evolution, if two living beings share a common feature, they must have come from a so-called common ancestor. However, there are numerous examples that contradict this. A similar evolutionist definition used is "convergent evolution" which makes the groundless claim that living beings with different features manifest a common feature over time. By defending that living beings diversified from a common origin over time (divergent), while at the same time defending a "convergent" structure, evolution in fact refutes itself. For example, Richard Dawkins says that the eye went through 40 independent evolutions. A theory, which cannot explain how a complex system such as the eye and vision formed as a result of coincidences, claims that such impossibility has been repeated 40 times. This only leads evolutionary claims to a deeper dead end for the theory. There is only one explanation for the fact that a magnificent system like vision appeared on different living organisms and at 40 different times; Creation. In fact, there is no "divergent" or "convergent" development; there is even not single evidence found which proves that living beings underwent a change over time. Evolutionists, as a requirement of their ideology, sink to dodging this fact by saying it is "repeated evolution."
If we are to examine this article; it is another logical error to claim that the adaptation of killifish to the pollution, which arose in the last short 30-40 years in the New York region is indicated as a "rapid and repetitive evolution". The adjustment here is an example of adaptation, not evolution. The living being has encountered an environment that enables it to use a feature that it already genetically possesses. When faced with pollution, if these fish do not have the physical ability to cope with this difficult situation they will die, or otherwise, if they can cope with it, they will sustain their lives.
Adaptation and Variation are not Evidence for Evolution
We frequently come across evolutionist circles' attempts at utilizing the adaptability to various natural conditions, examples of which we encounter in many living beings, as Darwinist propaganda material. Variation, which means that individuals within a species manifest some minor differences from birth, is not caused by changes in the DNA, but from differences in working speed of existing genes. For example, if the growth hormone over-performs its function, the person will be taller and more burly; if it under-performs, the person will be shorter. If melanin pigment producing cells over-produce, the skin color will be darker; if the pigment production is lacking, the skin color will be lighter. As you can see, DNA structure is the same in all cases. It cannot be considered as an evidence for so-called evolution.
Adaptation, on the other hand, is the ability to adapt to changing natural conditions within the limits allowed by genes. When a white-skinned person is exposed to the sun, skin cells try to protect the skin from harmful sunrays by starting to produce more melanin; thus the skin darkens. When the sun's effect is eliminated, the cells return to their old production speed and the skin color lightens. In the same way, the strength of an athlete increases with the increasing amount of protein in muscle cells. In this way, the athlete can lift three or four times more weight than before yet his children will not be born with strong muscles, because his genes have not changed. If the requirements of natural conditions exceed the limits of adaptation of the living beings, the consequence will be death; there is no spare time to wait. If you remove a fish from the sea, it will die after three or four minutes at most if it does not return to the water. No matter how many times you repeat this, it will not adapt to living on land, and the subsequent generations will not have the ability to survive more out of water. To claim that it can develop lungs over time is a ridiculous suggestion that raises a problem with claimer's mental faculties.
Yet, the ability to adapt is an indication of God’s perfect Creation. Being able to respond to the changing natural conditions via changes in the organism is a proof of the manifestation of God’s wisdom in the cells of that living being. One has to ponder on: Who made the decision to increase the melanin production; moreover, Who possesses the knowledge that Sun has harmful effects on the organism? Or where is that power, which regulates the metabolism of the killifish in accordance to the changing lethal environment in the cell? In a dark environment, rendering some metabolic pathways more active in line with the knowledge of changes in the surroundings, while rendering others less active can only be undertaken under the control of an Intelligent Mind.
As one can see, the ability of killifish to adapt to adverse conditions is not evidence for evolution. The fact that we are all created with the ability to adapt to the natural conditions is a gift from God to us all and to all living beings.
Is He Who creates like him who does not create? So will you not pay heed? If you tried to number God’s blessings, you could never count them. God is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Surat an-Nahl, 17-18)
Imagine that you set out on a journey through our Solar System. During this journey, you will come across planets with freezing cold or scorching hot temperatures, with atmospheres comprising of toxic gases, with severe storms raging on their surfaces, or without any water at all. Only the ‘blue planet’ Earth that we live on was created in a way that is fully hospitable for life with all sorts of ideal balances it maintains, from its atmosphere to its landforms, from its temperature to its magnetic field, from the elements it contains to its distance from the Sun.